Trends in the retirement readiness gender gap among TIAA participants

June 2022

Fifty years after the passage of Title IX, is there still a gender gap in retirement readiness?


Title IX prohibits sex-based discrimination in any education program or activity that receives federal funding, and education and the workplace have become more equitable for women since the landmark legislation was enacted. This TIAA Institute data brief shows trends in the retirement readiness gender gap from 2012 to 2020, both for the U.S. general population as well as for TIAA participants.

Key Insights
The gender gap in retirement account funding and target income replacement is still prevalent, but it has decreased significantly in recent years.
Among TIAA annuitants and the general U.S. population, the retirement income gap has decreased over recent years.
The retirement income gap is slightly smaller for TIAA annuitants and has decreased at a faster rate compared to the general U.S. population.

The authors examine gender differences in retirement savings in the U.S. and retirement readiness differences for TIAA participants. They also assess differences in the type of income retirees take.

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